KYC & AML: What Are the Differences and How Do You Combine the Two?;

KYC and AML complement each other. However, there are important differences you must know to optimize both processes.

Read all about them below.

KYC & AML: Key Differences

KYC stands for Know Your Customer. It’s a legal requirement for certain businesses that forces them to learn and confirm the identities of users and customers. It’s also a helpful process to reduce fraud and cybercrime because if you can confirm someone’s identity, they are less likely to get away with fraud.

AML stands for Anti Money-Laundering. It’s also a legal requirement for businesses to learn more about users and customers and their source of funds. There is a stronger focus on understanding where customers get their money and how they spend it, in order to avoid doing business with criminals who may use your business to launder money.

KYC AML Differences

In addition, AML checks require you to verify that customers’ names do not appear on PEP (Politically Exposed Persons) lists. This is to ensure they are less likely to be in positions of corruption or bribery, which could lead to money laundering.

Similarly, sanctions lists are designed to avoid doing business with individuals based in countries with known links to money laundering and terrorism financing. 

In short, both KYC and AML are legal requirements. Regulation for both processes is designed and monitored by governments. Both require businesses to learn more about their users in order to be compliant. However, KYC focuses strictly on understanding your customers’ identities. AML focuses more on understanding where their money is coming from.

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How Does KYC Compliance Work?

To meet KYC compliance requirements, your company must gather information about its new customers, usually during the signup or onboarding process. The information must include:

  • proof of full name using an ID document (passport, ID card, driver’s license..)
  • proof of address (utility bill, lease…)

Optionally, you may also be required to verify their business activity or employment status. KYC for certain industries also requires an age verification check (e.g. for adult or iGaming companies).

The KYC Process in 5 Steps

Let’s now break down the KYC process into a few simple steps. 

  1. A new user registers on your platform.
  2. You ask for their full name and address.
  3. You ask for an ID document.
  4. You verify that the document and other information match.
  5. You confirm the identity and allow registration.

In theory, it sounds simple enough. The problem, of course, is that manually verifying identities doesn’t scale for medium or large companies. 

To make matters worse, criminals and fraudsters have every intention to fool your KYC process. This is why most companies rely on third-party KYC software to perform identity verification for them. 

AML Regulators Around The World

How Does the AML Process Work?

Anti-money-laundering compliance can be more challenging than KYC. This is because on top of an identity verification step, you must also continuously monitor transactions and payments and get an idea of the source of your customers’ funds. 

We’ve created a complete AML checklist here, but let’s examine what a standard AML process looks like:

  1. A new user registers on your platform.
  2. You ask for their full name and address.
  3. You ask for an ID document.
  4. You check their name against PEP lists.
  5. You check their country of residence against sanction lists.
  6. You continuously monitor how much money they move through your company, and to whom.

As you can imagine, the last part is particularly challenging. Here again, this is why companies rely on transaction monitoring software to take care of all that data in a safe and compliant fashion.

Fines

Why KYC and AML Are Important

KYC and AML are important for both businesses and the economy. Regardless of whether you need KYC only or both KYC and AML, it’s in your company’s best interests to meet all the right regulations, for reasons such as these:

  • Avoid heavy fines: Government regulators will make an example out of your company for failing to meet compliance.
  • Maintain a better reputation: Compliance issues are never great for PR – either with customers or stakeholders.
  • Make life harder for criminals: A more secure onboarding and monitoring process can, in theory, make life harder for criminals.
  • Secure your business processes: There are a lot of overlaps between KYC, AML, and general safe business practices. Identifying bad actors can reduce fraud and cybercrime, and keep your business secure in the long run. 
The Importance of KYC Compliance

The Benefits of Combining KYC and AML

It’s no secret that compliance is expensive and sometimes overwhelming. One KYC check can cost up to $130. 

This is why, if possible, most businesses will attempt to combine both KYC and AML into one process. Here are the advantages of such an approach:

  • Save on operational costs: Instead of running multiple systems for KYC and AML, you streamline your operations, which saves you money in the long run.
  • Reduce user friction: Getting the right data once means fewer prompts for your users, which improves the customer experience.
  • Remove data silos: KYC and AML information tends to disappear into a black hole. The data is siloed and stored away until a regulator asks for it. However, by gathering all your KYC and AML data with one system (mutualization), you can get a lot more from it – for instance in terms of user segmentation, tailored financial products, or even marketing. 

While many companies focus their KYC and AML efforts on identity verification, there is another interesting angle worth considering: how to turn data into behavior analysis

In other words, it’s not just about acquiring user information, but being able to read and understand it to learn more about your customers. 

Having more data can help a financial institution or neobank in manifold ways:

  • By gathering data at the onboarding stage, you can filter out junk users.
  • Doing pre-KYC and AML checks allows you to save money on official checks.
  • You can repurpose user data to tailor specific offers or segment your customers.
  • Regulators can see that you understand your users, not that you just regurgitate the data.
  • You can be more flexible with your AML and KYC rules.

The last point is worth expanding upon. To illustrate it, let’s look at an example of a standard AML rule: 

Standard AML Rule

In this example, we’re simply flagging all transactions above $3000. This is a legal requirement, and we can review them. 

But what does that say about our customer? Not much. Besides, your compliance team is probably likely to be reviewing plenty of false positives, where the purchase is legitimate and from a trustworthy customer. 

This is where creating more sophisticated rules that look at user behavior comes in handy. For instance, instead of flagging every high-value transaction, why not look at a sharp increase over a set period such as a 200% increase in spend over 24 hours?

AML Rule

This is an example of an AML rule that helps understand user behavior.

When you see a dramatic increase in spending, it is reasonable to believe that something suspicious is at play. This is when you should be paying extra attention to that user and the money they move through your company.

Of course, such a rule can be set with a minimum threshold or combine with other rules to minimize false positives and provide more sophistication.

How SEON Complements the KYC & AML Process

At SEON, we focus on data enrichment to help you understand user behavior. Whether you need extra information for a KYC check or sophisticated transaction monitoring for AML, our API-based modules let you:

  • gather real-time information on the user, such as social media accounts, type of device, IP connection details, and more
  • see if that information matches that of your customer, or if you should raise red flags
  • keep that data for your AML and KYC checks, including to advise any manual checks
  • continually monitoring the user to understand their online behavior

All that data can not only help you immediately filter out junk users but also allow you to deliver a better service in the long run. 

FAQ

Where are KYC and AML required?

KYC and AML are required for banks, neobanks, exchanges, and FX trading platforms, among others. However, a growing number of verticals deploy KYC checks to learn more about their customers, reduce fraud, and ensure safer business operations. 

What are AML and KYC in banking?

AML stands for Anti-Money Laundering and KYC stands for Know Your Customer. Both are regulated processes that banks must comply with – otherwise, they may face heavy fines.

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Author avatar
Jimmy Fong
CCO

Jimmy is the CCO of SEON and brings his in-depth experience of fraud-fighting to assist fraud teams everywhere.


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