If you’ve ever wanted to play online detective, OSINT, or open-source intelligence, is the way to go. But what exactly is it, and how can it help your business? Let’s find out.
List of Top 10 OSINT Tools
- Maltego: Investigations via Java Graphs
- SEON: Best for Social and Digital Signals Checks
- Lampyre: Due Diligence and Cyberthreat Intelligence
- Google: Free OSINT (If You Know How to Use It)
- Recon-ng: Open Source OSINT Framework
- SpiderFoot: Cybersecurity Intelligence
- Spokeo: US Citizen Records Checks
- Have I Been Pwnd?: The Data Breach Go-To
- PhoneInfoga: Python-Based Phone Lookup
- Email Hippo: MX Records Checks for Email Lookup
What Are Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Tools?
Open Source Intelligence software, abbreviated as OSINT software, are tools that allow the collection of information that is publicly available or open-source. The goal of OSINT software is mainly to learn more about someone or a business.
According to former Google CEO Eric Schmidt, over 99% of the internet’s data cannot be accessed by major search engines. That includes public data that OSINT software can help you gather.
More advanced OSINT software will help you combine multiple data points n order to cross-reference information – and to gain a source of truth.
OSINT means gathering publicly available data from the internet. See here how that data helps you against fraud
Top Features of OSINT Tools
Broadly speaking, there are then two key features to consider when choosing your OSINT software:
- Passive: The most common way of digging for information. An investigator will enter the data they already have into a passive OSINT tool, and gain extra information. This is akin to fishing with a wide net.
- Active: A more focused way of acquiring data based on information that may be initially hidden. For instance, befriending a target’s acquaintance on Facebook to learn more about them in the long run. Going back to the fishing analogy, this is more like spearfishing. While you don’t need specific software for active tactics, you will find that many tools can help your strategy.
Aside from that, any good OSINT software will help you access information that is:
- published or broadcast (news, media, online posts, etc.)
- available by public request (e.g., government census information)
- available by subscription or purchase (paywalled publications, whitepapers)
- publicly searchable (clear web)
The 10 Best OSINT Software & Tools
Disclaimer: Everything in this article was gleaned from online research, including user reviews. We did not have time to manually test all the tools. However, we ensured the information was correct as of Q3 2022. Feel free to contact us to request an update/correction.
Maltego – Investigations via Java Graphs
Maltego is a Java application that claims to simplify and expedite your investigations. How exactly? Thanks to its fantastic access to databases and visualization tools.
Whether you’re in trust and safety, law enforcement, or cybersecurity, the company lets you run one-click investigations that deliver easy-to-understand results.
At the time of writing, Maltego lets you view up to 1 million entities on a graph, with access to 58 data sources. You can even connect your own public databases and upload data sources manually.
Once all the information is loaded in the program, you can choose from different visualization layouts, such as blocks, hierarchical, or circular, using weights and notes to adjust the graphs.
Finally, Maltego isn’t just a great tool; the company also has a fantastic collection of hand-picked resources on OSINT tools and techniques to help you get even more from their product. In fact, there is even a Maltego foundations course you can purchase online.
- Maltego offers online courses which vary in price. There is a free personal plan for limited searches, but the pro version of the software costs around $1000 per year.
- Great graph visualization tools
- Multiple data viz options
- Java application only
- Dated UI
SEON – Best for Social and Digital Signal Checks
Confirming someone’s identity by checking for linked social media and online platform accounts is becoming increasingly popular for a number of good reasons:
- It’s a high barrier of entry for fraudsters, who don’t have the time or resources to create fake profiles.
- It’s a fantastic way to gather a user’s digital footprint.
- It can help establish an idea of someone’s socioeconomic background, even in markets where financial information is scarce.
- The type of social media linked to the user can also reveal more about who they are.
Of course, you can manually search directly into your target network, by typing a name into LinkedIn, Facebook, or Twitter. For scalability reasons, however, it’s easier to use a specialist solution. This is where SEON shines.
SEON is the only fraud prevention tool that checks more than 50 social and online signals. These checks are based on an email address, IP address or phone number.
Because they’re part of our email and phone data enrichment modules, you’ll get a lot more information, including a risk score. The other good news is that you do get complete flexibility in how you query the service: manually, via API, or through a Google Chrome extension.
- Starts at $299 per month – book a live product demo or self-onboard for a free 14-day trial to see how we can help your business.
- Gather social media information
- Scalable thanks to API calls
- Real-time results
- Enrich data based on an email address, phone number or IP address
- Additional velocity checks, behavior checks, device fingerprinting
- Not free. While there is a free trial, you have to pay a subscription to access the APIs.
Lampyre – Due Diligence and Cyberthreat Intelligence
Lampyre is a paid application designed specifically for OSINT. It’s particularly useful for due diligence, cyber threat intelligence, crime analysis, and financial analytics. You can install it on your PC or run it online.
The key selling point of Lampyre is that it’s a one-click application. Start with single data points such as a company registration number, full name, or phone number, and Lampyre will sift through huge amounts of data to extract interesting information.
The company automatically processes 100+ regularly updated data sources, and you can access them via PC software or API calls if needed. The SaaS product is called Lighthouse, and you pay per API call.
An important point here: As with many OSINT tools, you have to perform your due diligence to check if the databases are really open source. Lampyre may automate searches, but you may still have to double-check where the information comes from, as well as who exactly it is that is sourcing it for you, as one researcher found out.
- Lampyre is affordable. You can try a one-monthdemo license, which then turns into a standard subscription. You can also purchase a $300 yearly version. SaaS pricing is via the Lighthouse subscription, priced $3.25-$130 per month, depending on the number of calls you make.
- Great for cybersecurity as well as due diligence
- Gather data from 100+ sources
- Affordable subscription or yearly purchase
- Lampyre and its Lighthouse SaaS aren’t the most intuitive pieces of software to use, so there is a bit of a learning curve.
Google – Free OSINT (If You Know How to Use It)
Search engines such as Google, Bing, or DuckDuckGo are perfectly adequate free OSINT tools. That is, if you know how to use advanced filters. In short, it’s about refining your search to benefit from the indexing power of some of the best algorithms on the planet.
Over the years, talented investigators have learned how to reverse-engineer search engines. The method is called Google dorking, or Google hacking, and it uses search operators or functions to expand the capacity of the tools (it works with search engines beyond Google, too).
The method is controversial, because it may cross the line in terms of how “public” the information is.
For instance, you may find a link to a PDF file containing a list of passwords, but downloading it may be a prosecutable offense.
Examples of search operators include:
- specific file types
- searching for terms on a specific site
- finding RSS feeds related to a term
- finding files created between specific dates
An example of Google dorking would be to search, e.g. company.website.domain for PDF files, which you would do by typing “site:company.website.domain filetype:pdf”. You’d be surprised at the number of documents that are openly available if you know how to get Google to fetch them for you.
You can read more about known Google Dork operators here.
- It’s completely free (but comes with concerns about your personal data).
- The free price, obviously
- Limited results
- Requires a lot of trial-and-error
- Privacy issues
- May fall into a grey area when it comes to the legality of obtaining certain documents
Recon-ng – An Open Source OSINT Framework
Recon-ng initially started as a free and open-source script for gathering technical information about website domains. Since its creation, it has evolved into a full framework, which you can access via a command-line interface on Kali Linux, or as a web application.
Its interface is similar to Metasploitable, another computer security project designed for penetration testing, and has similar goals: to assess and identify web vulnerabilities. Its features include GeoIP lookup, DNS lookup, and port scanning, among others.
While it’s certainly one of the more technical tools featured on this list, you’ll find plenty of resources online to learn how Recon-ng can locate sensitive files such as robots.txt, identify hidden subdomains, look for SQL errors, and get information about a company’s CMS or WHOIS.
- It’s free and open source – but obviously limited in the type of information it can return for you.
- Free and open-source
- Great for cybersecurity
- Command-line interface only
- Not suitable for less tech-savvy investigators
SpiderFoot – Cybersecurity Intelligence
SpiderFoot is an OSINT tool designed specifically for investigation professionals. It’s loved by cybersecurity intelligence experts who need to perform regular asset discovery or attack surface monitoring. SpiderFoot was acquired by Intel471 in November 2022, with the company announcing that it plans to integrate SpiderFoot’s capabilities into its solutions.
The tool can access hundreds of open data sources and monitor the results in real-time. The key difference with other OSINT tools, however, is how you can use SpiderFoot.
You can choose to self-host it as a true open-source version. You can also purchase the hosted version, which is completely managed by SpiderFoot.
There are numerous advantages to the latter. For instance, you’ll get better performance, full team collaboration, and the ability to see correlations in your investigation. All the modules and third-party tools will come preinstalled and preconfigured.
- SpiderFoot recently removed all pricing information from the website, so there is a chance the tiered-level pricing system has changed. Please contact SpiderFoot for specifics if you are interested.
- Affordable plans or open source version
- Team collaboration
- Loved by intelligence experts
- Steep learning curve
Spokeo – Check US Citizen Records
When it comes to checking US citizens’ records, there are plenty of services offering more or less the same features at the same price range. You might hear of BeenVerified, Pip, or Intelius.
Spokeo offers an easy-to-use interface and the results seem to be more accurate upon testing. You can also use Spokeo as a reverse email lookup, phone lookup tool, and postal address lookup, to get info based on a single data point.
The service is available online, and there’s even an Android app to perform searches directly from your smartphone.
You’ll be able to access billions of records such as property deeds, court records, and even historical records and social networks.
The only downside is that it tends to be very US-centric, so if you’re looking for someone located elsewhere, you might have to use another tool.
- Spokeo lets you perform one search as a free trial, and you’re then invited to purchase a monthly subscription. They’ve hidden the pricing from their website so you’ll need to contact them directly for a quote, but expect to pay $8–$15 per month depending on the features you choose.
- Great for US-based due diligence
- Access historical and court records
- Offers reverse email or address lookup.
- Checks are slow
- Not as free as they claim
Have I Been Pwnd? – The Data Breach Go-To
We’ve previously written about how you can use an email data breach for user verification, but it’s particularly useful when looking at whether an email address exists or not. In fact, you can even infer how mature the address is depending on which data breach it’s been found in.
And Have I Been Pwned? is still the best site to quickly search for email addresses that appear in said data leaks (you can now also do the same with phone numbers). Best of all, it’s completely free.
Have I Been Pwned? pricing:
- $0 for manual checks. Using its API comes with a $3.5 monthly fee.
Have I Been Pwned? pros:
- Find all the data breach information you need
- Get an idea of how old an email address is (if it appears on older breaches)
- Can bulk search entire domains
- Free for manual checks
Have I Been Pwned? cons:
- Limited to phone and email checks.
PhoneInfoga – Python-Based Phone Lookup
You may need to be rather tech-savvy to use it, but you’ll be hard-pressed to find a better open-source tool for OSINT for phone number lookups.
The tool squeezes as much information as you can imagine from a phone number, and it works for every location worldwide.
Note, however, that unlike with SEON’s tool, you don’t get reverse social media lookup to learn which networks the user has registered to with their phone number.
- The fact that it’s completely free
- Worldwide coverage
- Steep learning curve
Email Hippo – MX Records Checks for Email Lookup
Email Hippo, which you can also access through VerifyEmailAddress.io, has been operating since 2009. However, it recently underwent a complete overhaul and is now far from free and open.
Instead, the solution is split into CORE, MORE, ASSESS AND WHOIS, covering use cases such as data enrichment for investigations, marketing and fraud prevention.
Unfortunately, this sea change in the way the product positions itself has rendered it much more complicated to comprehend. However, the free trial does not require a credit card and lasts 14 days, which can help figure out whethr it is for you.
Email Hippo pricing:
- Depends entirely on the product you choose and the frequency of payment or the number of requests sent. CORE, for instance, will set you back $9.88 a month for 1,000 checks.
Email Hippo pros:
- An established name in email intelligence with deep insights.
Email Hippo cons:
- Perhaps no longer as useful to OSINT researchers as it once was.
SEON’s fraud APIs are highly configurable for various business use cases to match your unique business needs. Leverage the power of OSINT from 50+ sources to stop fraud and learn more about your customers.
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Why Do We Need OSINT Tools?
OSINT tools and techniques are common in cybersecurity, where they are used to identify external threads or for ethical hacking and penetration testing.
Law enforcement agencies, private investigators, and journalists also rely on the same techniques to learn more about a crime, suspect, organization, or person of interest.
Similarly, HR professionals can perform searches on potential candidates by conducting background checks on open source directories.
Marketing and sales teams can use OSINT tools when they need to target a specific user, or simply need to check if an email address is valid.
Sadly, it should also be acknowledged that fraudsters and criminals can use the same tools and techniques for exploits. For instance, when building a synthetic ID, a fraudster can stitch data they have acquired from a darknet marketplace, and combine it with data acquired through public records.
In the context of fraud detection, OSINT helps make decisions relating to:
- accepting a transaction in a CNP (card not present) scenario
- onboarding a new user on a platform (neobank, financial institution, iGaming)
- accepting a withdrawal (iGaming, crypto exchanges)
- performing a credit check for a loan (fintech, microfinancing)
Choosing the Best OSINT Tool
Open-source intelligence is a broad topic. Investigators rely on its techniques for a variety of reasons, and there it’s easy to go down a rabbit hole of advanced, very technical tools.
This is why we hope this post offers a good primer on the best OSINT tools you can start using today. That’s true whether your aim is to find marketing leads, solve a crime, secure a website, or reduce fraud rates.
OSINT, short for open-source intelligence, is a process designed to gather information from public sources. These sources may be government databases, websites, or brochures, for example. To achieve this, investigators use several manual as well as automatic tools.
OSINT is a key feature of cybersecurity and criminal investigations. OSINT is also used in fraud detection, trust and safety, and risk management. HR and business managers can use these tools for due diligence on potential employees or partners. Marketing teams can also rely on OSINT techniques to learn more about leads and segment users.
Recorded Future: What Is Open Source Intelligence and How Is it Used?
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Tamás Kádár is the Chief Executive Officer and co-founder of SEON. His mission to create a fraud-free world began after he founded the CEE’s first crypto exchange in 2017 and found it under constant attack. The solution he built now reduces fraud for 5,000+ companies worldwide, including global leaders such as KLM, Avis, and Patreon. In his spare time, he’s devouring data visualizations and injuring himself while doing basic DIY around his London pad.
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